Large scale of medieval town with historical core and a plenty of interesting objects have been preserved till today in Ľubica:
- Burgher’s houses and some kinds of craft and peasant houses.
- Originally Gothic church of Holy Spirit with some preserved architectural elements witnessing its very old descent
- Parish church of Virgin Mary Translation (13th century). It is the greatest two-aisle church in Spiš. The altar with a Gothic statue and sculpture of Virgin Mary and female saints from the workshop of Master Paul of Levoča.
- Holy Virgin Pillar with the statue of Immaculate (1725 -1726). The highest, the most Baroque and one of the nicest pillars from that period in the Spiš.
- Evangelic church – Baroque and Classicistic (1784 – 1786)
The history of the community has not been resolved as to period before 1251, from which are the oldest mentions about the community.
The oldest sights which have been found in the community environs come form the period round 2 400 years BC. Ľubica is certain to be the oldest communities in the Spiš.
Very memorable is the year 1271 when the Hungarian king Stephan V. granted privileges to Ľubica and doing so he raised Ľubica among royal towns. In the 17th century it ranked among the richest Spiš towns with huge bounds.
In Ľubica there worked round 20 guilds and it had even the right of three annual fairs. The situation became worse in the period of mortgage to Poland by the Hungarian sovereign Sigismund in 1412. In 1878 Ľubica became again the community.
With the history of Ľubica is connected the usage of healing springs of sulphuric waters known since 1714, at which Ľubica Spa was originated. The formation of military training area damned the spa. The next decline of the community was caused by adding Ľubica to Kežmarok in 1974. The revival was recorded in 1992 when Ľubica was again independent. Its aim is to take up again the famous history with prospect of a small town.
Guilds in the community
Although the guilds were already formed in the 1st half of the 14th century, however we cannot find marks of guild deeds from the 14th and 15th centuries up to 1480. Frequent fires and Hussite invasions destroyed all written documents.
Just for interest we introduce some of the most interesting crafts:
Cloth maker guild, boot maker guild, weaver guild, shoeing smith guild, tailor guild, smith guild, girdler guild, fell monger guild, bricklayer and stonemason guild, tanner guild, butcher guild, cooper guild, associated guild of millers and carpenters, wheelwright guild, brewer guild.
A guild provided significant privileges to each its member, that’s why it was a wish of every town inhabitant to belong to a guild. Each guild had its own regulations – statutes regulating not only the work of its members but also family and social life. The deed of cloth maker craftsmen comprises for example: “the craftsman who intentionally leaves out church service on Sundays or holiday will be punished by a pound of wax”. The shoemaker guild in Ľubica banned its members to play cards in 1820. The statutes of bricklayers from 1783 ordered the journeymen to behave by fair means, to avoid stealing, on Sundays and holidays to visit church and school.
It is very probable that the guilds took their religious, moral, social and work principles from various religious fellowships. They observed order, peace and tolerance among members and in their families. They cared for the patients, widows and orphans of their members. It is interesting to mention that in 1895 after removing the guilds there were 120 craftsmen in Ľubica.
The first contact evidence with Christianity of pagan inhabitants on the territory of Ľubica of that time are archeological findings of pots with motives of Christianity from 5th and 6th centuries. Of course Christianization came as late as with missionaries from Western Europe. During the older time of Ľubica a walled church already existed (Superior Templum). The tight spot is unknown but it was located approximately on Oberring (German name of the street Budovateľská). Round 1198 s Spiš Priory was originated, which the Ľubica parish belonged to.
On the territory of Ľubica there was a cloister, too. The cloister building has been in existence close to the parish church till today, to which the underground corridor ending with a crypt leads. It was the Abbey of Virgin Mary. It is attributed to the Cistercian monastic society. The Order of Maltese Knights is reported to be the second alternative. The cloister ceased between whiles to be used by friars, thus it started to be used as a curia personae. The name of the first pastor has not been preserved.
In 1433 Spiš suffered invasion of the Hussites who caused much damage. From the very beginning the reformation did not accentuate confession differences but more those of social background. Some catholic ceremonies were left and thus common people did not notice what was going on. All clerical buildings were taken over and did not serve for catholic services. Such conditions lasted up to 1671.
One of the first reformists was G. Lewdischer (in Ľubica in 1542). From 1564 the pastor Vavrinec Serpili officiated here who accompanied a young nobleman M. Horváth to meet M. Luther.
Under the emperor Leopold I. (1675 – 1705) the recatholicization broke out. The period of reformation and counter-reformation was the period of strong administrative interventions. In 1762 Sir Anton Wisniewsky (order of Piarists) was appointed as a parish priest in Ľubica who promoted great changes in the construction and restoration of sacral objects in Ľubica. He had a crypt in the parish church deepened, two side-altars, stone wall round church, new shingle roof built, etc.
The Church of Holy Spirit was administered namely by the holy Joes. Its origin dates back to 1239, it is mentioned as a spital one.
Within living memory the churchgoers of Byzantine and Slavonic confession have been residing in the Spiš. Due to moving in of the Walachians and the Ruthenians in 14th and 15th centuries the Greek Catholics appeared in the filia of Majerka for the first time in 1732 as well as in the Ľubica Spa which did not belong to Ľubica parish administration but to that of community. Since 1930 there has been service in the Chapel of Translation. At first the chapel was administered by Stotince (Ihľany), later Paul Peter Gojdič asked the Order of Redemptorists for permanent administration. Since 1944 there has been an independent parish of the Greek Catholics.
Today Ľubica is foremost Catholic, small representation is taken by the Evangelic and Orthodox Church, and about seven per cent inhabitants are of Greek-Catholic confession.
Mortgage to Poland
In 1412 the Hungarian King and Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund mortgaged Ľubica together with some further Spiš towns to the Polish Jagellonian king Vladislav II. from the reasons of debts due to frequent wars (because of which he was always in troubles). Sigismund had to pay in this way the loan of 37 heaps of silver coppers, approximate counting of 100 000 000 crowns. It probably happened in the Ľubovňa castle on 15th March 1412. The mortgage represented just their incomes not duties, rights and geographic situation. And just to the King, not the state. It was a bargain for the Polish king because those towns were very rich.
Following the legal regulations the mortgage was void. The time of mortgage was not acceptable for the inhabitants of the towns. During the whole period the Polish sovereigns just exploited the material and financial sources what caused heavy load for inhabitants. For instance the taxes in 1678 for all those towns reached amount of 15 000 goldens.
The inhabitants submitted a petition for remitting taxes because of poverty, which had catastrophic consequences. The reply was negative. After some time the Polish by themselves elected reeves in the mortgaged towns.
The wars and uprisings obstructed situation and plague as well. Save Maria Theresa got the mortgaged towns from Polish power in summer 1772 in Warsaw. The agreement was signed by the Polish king Stanislav A. Poniatowski.
In the years 1724 -1730 the prince and earl Theodore Constantine Lubomirski - the last hereditary mayor had a Virgin Mary pillar with the statue of Virgin Mary as a manifestation of repentance for his disturbance against Ľubica during the mortgage built in Ľubica.
Settlement of Spiš
Ľubica with more Spiš towns has recently celebrated the jubilee of granting the town privileges, which it was granted as early as in 1271 from the Hungarian king Stephan V.
In the old deeds there Ľubica had the names: Lubicha, Lubitz, Lymbych, Lewbitz, Leibic. The oldest name has a Slavic origin and it points to Slavic roots of the community (evidence of other archeological facts). According to some historians the Poprad valley was settled by Flemish and West German colonists as early as in 10th – 12th centuries. It is clear from historic sources that before arrival of German colonists in 13th century there had existed important crossroads, medieval settlements in Slovakia whose development was interrupted by Tartar invasions to Hungary. After those events a strong boom of crafts in the Spiš occurred.
In 13th century the whole Europe was affected by military threat from Asia. Tartar tribes came with huge army on their conqueror ways and in 1241 invaded Hungary. While the king Belo IV. created the army, the Tartars came up to the river of Slaná. After defeat of Hungarian troops the Tartars came as near as the Spiš.
The peace occurred in 1242 after beating back the attack of invaders. After those events Belo IV. decided to settle all after war damages and invited the German colonists to the Spiš. In such a way the German craftsmen came to Ľubica.
From the times not so long ago when the German inhabitants lived in the community, some exerted German names of streets were left (Kirchberg, Obergas, Oberring...), of hills (Rohrberg, Dulisberg, Lent…), of valleys (Venigleibnitz, Kottenhag…), end others.
Aktualizované 30.4.2010 -mk-